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Research Experience in the Program

The Research Experience

Each fellow has a dedicated research block of 15 months for a clinical or basic science research project. During the research component of the fellowship, clinic time is reduced to continuity clinics only, usually 2 full days per month within the UH Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital system. This enables the fellow to dedicate 80% of his or her time to the research project.

Fellows choose a project and faculty mentor during a 6-7 week research block in the first year of fellowship. A Scholarship Oversight Committee (SOC) is also established at this time. Protected research time to execute the project occurs for 12 months from January of the second year through December of the third year. Manuscript preparation occurs during 5-6 weeks of protected time in the last half of the third year. The research experience of every fellow is supervised either by endocrine division faculty or by other members of the faculty at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.

Research funding is available to pediatric endocrinology fellows from the Department of Pediatrics at UH Rainbow Babies & Children’s Hospital through the Fellowship Research Award in Pediatrics (FRAP). Divisional funds may also be available, depending on the specific project. Finally, opportunities exist to write grant proposals for external funding of research projects.

In addition to a formal research project, fellows also choose and complete a Quality Improvement project during fellowship. These projects can be inpatient or outpatient focused and can be division specific or multidisciplinary.

Fellows are also expected to work with faculty to present interesting case reports or case series at national meetings, followed by publication in academic journals.

Periodic research and QI updates occur during weekly divisional conference meetings. Our fellows and faculty also present their findings at oral and poster presentations at national meetings of major academic societies, including the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the American Diabetes Association, The Endocrine Society, and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes. In addition, all fellows present their work locally at the annual Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital Fellow Science Day in June.

Recent Fellow Research Projects

  • Effect of Dietary Protein Intake on Post-prandial Hyperglycemia in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (awarded Best Clinical Project, RB&C Fellow Science Day, June 2019)
  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Parental Anxiety and Parent Defined Outcomes
  • Effect of Iodine on Thyroid Function in Very Low Birth Weight Infants
  • Hepatic Steatosis in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes: a Cross Sectional Analysis
  • Disruption of T-Cell Homeostasis by Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 Activity is Critical In Pathogenesis of Diet Induced Obesity
  • Advanced Glycation End-Products and Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence, and Their Relationship to Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Cardiovascular Health in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Impact of Fitbit on Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese Adolescents Enrolled in a Weight Management Program
  • Hair Cortisol as a Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) Axis in Children with Type 1 Diabetes
  • Intensive Diabetes Clinic and Intermittent Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Poor Glycemic Control
  • The Role of Regulatory T Cells in the Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Recent Fellow Quality Improvement Projects

  • Evaluation and Management for Risk of Adrenal Insufficiency in Infants after Prolonged Exposure to Systemic Glucocorticoids
  • Mini-Dose Glucagon Treatment for Low Blood Sugar Rescue Card
  • Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism in Very Low Birth Weight Infants
  • Standardization of Glucocorticoid Dosing Instructions in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Diabetes Action Plan: a Simple and Inexpensive Intervention to Prevent Diabetes Related Emergencies
  • Optimizing Medical Management after Thyroidectomy
  • Optimizing Safety in Entering Insulin Pump Orders in the Electronic Medical Record

Selected Recent Articles Authored by Faculty and Fellows


Montelukast Prevents Early Diabetic Retinopathy in Mice. Bapputty R, Talahalli R, Zarini S, Samuels I, Murphy R, Gubitosi-Klug R. Diabetes. 2019 Jul 26. pii: db190026. doi: 10.2337/db19-0026. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31350303

Screening eye exams in youth with type 1 diabetes under 18 years of age: Once may be enough? Gubitosi-Klug RA, Bebu I, White NH, Malone J, Miller R, Lorenzi GM, Hainsworth DP, Trapani VR, Lachin JM, Tamborlane WV; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Research Group*. Pediatr Diabetes. 2019 Sep;20(6):743-749. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12877. Epub 2019 Jul 9. PMID: 31206973

Predictors of response to insulin therapy in youth with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in the TODAY trial. Bacha F, El Ghormli L, Arslanian S, Zeitler P, Laffel LM, Levitt Katz LE, Gandica R, Chang NT, Sprague JE, MacLeish SA; TODAY Study Group. Pediatr Diabetes. 2019 Aug 16. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12906. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31418516

Autism spectrum disorder in children with Type 1 diabetes. Bethin KE, Kanapka LG, Laffel LM, Majidi S, Chaytor NS, MacLeish S, Adams R, Foster NC; T1D Exchange Clinic Network. Diabet Med. 2019 Jul 4. doi: 10.1111/dme.14069. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31271682

Two Family Interventions to Reduce BMI in Low-Income Urban Youth: A Randomized Trial. Moore SM, Borawski EA, Love TE, Jones S, Casey T, McAleer S, Thomas C, Adegbite-Adeniyi C, Uli NK, Hardin HK, Trapl ES, Plow M, Stevens J, Truesdale KP, Pratt CA, Long M, Nevar A. Pediatrics. 2019 Jun;143(6). pii: e20182185. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-2185. PMID: 31126971

Risk Factors for Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes: The DCCT/EDIC Study. Hainsworth DP, Bebu I, Aiello LP, Sivitz W, Gubitosi-Klug R, Malone J, White NH, Danis R, Wallia A, Gao X, Barkmeier AJ, Das A, Patel S, Gardner TW, Lachin JM; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Research Group. Diabetes Care. 2019 May;42(5):875-882. doi: 10.2337/dc18-2308. PMID: 30833368

Weight-Related Teasing of Adolescents Who Are Primarily Obese: Roles of Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy. Ievers-Landis CE, Dykstra C, Uli N, O'Riordan MA. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Apr 30;16(9). pii: E1540. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16091540. PMID: 31052342

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Based Physical Activity Recommendations Do Not Improve Fitness in Real-World Settings. Seibert T, Allen DB, Eickhoff JC, Carrel AL. J Sch Health. 2019 Mar;89(3):159-164. doi: 10.1111/josh.12724. Epub 2019 Jan 10. PMID: 30632155

Emergency management of adrenal insufficiency in children: advocating for treatment options in outpatient and field settings. Miller BS, Spencer SP, Geffner ME, Gourgari E, Lahoti A, Kamboj MK, Stanley TL, Uli NK, Wicklow BA, Sarafoglou K. J Investig Med. 2019 Feb 28. pii: jim-2019-000999. doi: 10.1136/jim-2019-000999. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30819831


ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018: Sick day management in children and adolescents with diabetes. Laffel L, Limbert C, Phelan H, Virmani A, Wood J, Hofer SEPediatr Diabetes. 2018 Oct;19 Suppl 27:193-204. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12741. PMID: 30079506

Initial Presentation of Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents Predicts Durability of Successful Treatment with Metformin Monotherapy: Insights from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T2D Registry. Bacha F, Cheng P, Gal RL, Kollman C, Tamborlane WV, Klingensmith GJ, Manseau K, Wood J, Beck RW; for the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium. Horm Res Paediatr. 2018;89(1):47-55. doi: 10.1159/000481687. PMID: 29131017

CDC childhood physical activity strategies fail to show sustained fitness impact in middle school children. Seibert TS, Allen DB, Eickhoff J, Carrel AL. Prev Med Rep. 2018 Aug 23;12:60-65. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.08.007. eCollection 2018 Dec. PMID: 30181947

Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Recurrent Wheezing in Black Infants Who Were Born Preterm: The D-Wheeze Randomized Clinical Trial. Hibbs AM, Ross K, Kerns LA, Wagner C, Fuloria M, Groh-Wargo S, Zimmerman T, Minich N, Tatsuoka C. JAMA. 2018 May 22;319(20):2086-2094. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.5729. Erratum in: JAMA. 2018 Aug 14;320(6):605. PMID: 29800180

Meta-genome-wide association studies identify a locus on chromosome 1 and multiple variants in the MHC region for serum C-peptide in type 1 diabetes. Roshandel D, Gubitosi-Klug R, Bull SB, Canty AJ, Pezzolesi MG, King GL, Keenan HA, Snell-Bergeon JK, Maahs DM, Klein R, Klein BEK, Orchard TJ, Costacou T, Weedon MN; DCCT/EDIC Research Group, Oram RA, Paterson AD. Diabetologia. 2018 May;61(5):1098-1111. doi: 10.1007/s00125-018-4555-9. PMID: 29404672

Acute liver failure in neonates with undiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance due to exposure from widely available infant formulas. Li H, Byers HM, Diaz-Kuan A, Vos MB, Hall PL, Tortorelli S, Singh R, Wallenstein MB, Allain M, Dimmock DP, Farrell RM, McCandless S, Gambello MJ. Mol Genet Metab. 2018 Apr;123(4):428-432. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.02.016. PMID: 29510902

Wood J and Peters A. (2018). Peters A, Wood J, Zacharatos MZ (Eds.). The Type 1 Diabetes Self-Care Manual: A complete guide to type 1 diabetes across the lifespan for people with diabetes, parents and caregivers. Arlington:American Diabetes Association.

Farrell, R and Richardson, E. Chapter 9: Retinopathy and Type II Diabetes. In: Grace Kim, Pediatric Type II Diabetes, First Edition, Seattle, WA: Elsevier, 2018, 130 pages.


Barriers to participation in industry-sponsored clinical trials in pediatric type 2 diabetes. Farrell R, Bethin K, Klingensmith G, Tamborlane WV, Gubitosi-Klug R. Pediatr Diabetes. 2017 Nov;18(7):574-578. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12465. PMID: 27807915

Growth perturbations from stimulant medications and inhaled corticosteroids. Richardson E, Seibert T, Uli NK. Transl Pediatr. 2017 Oct;6(4):237-247. doi: 10.21037/tp.2017.09.14. Review. PMID: 29184805

Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Over 30 Years of Follow-up in the DCCT/EDIC Study. Gubitosi-Klug RA, Braffett BH, White NH, Sherwin RS, Service FJ, Lachin JM, Tamborlane WV; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Research Group. Diabetes Care. 2017 Aug;40(8):1010-1016. doi: 10.2337/dc16-2723. PMID: 28550194

Racial Differences in the Relationship of Glucose Concentrations and Hemoglobin A1c Levels. Bergenstal RM, Gal RL, Connor CG, Gubitosi-Klug R, Kruger D, Olson BA, Willi SM, Aleppo G, Weinstock RS, Wood J, Rickels M, DiMeglio LA, Bethin KE, Marcovina S, Tassopoulos A, Lee S, Massaro E, Bzdick S, Ichihara B, Markmann E, McGuigan P, Woerner S, Ecker M, Beck RW; T1D Exchange Racial Differences Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jul 18;167(2):95-102. doi: 10.7326/M16-2596. PMID: 28605777

A cross-sectional view of the current state of treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes in the USA: enrollment data from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium Type 2 Diabetes Registry. Nambam B, Silverstein J, Cheng P, Ruedy KJ, Beck RW, Paul Wadwa R, Klingensmith G, Willi SM, Wood JR, Bacha F, Thomas IH, Tamborlane WV; Pediatric Diabetes Consortium. Pediatr Diabetes. 2017 May;18(3):222-229. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12377. PMID: 26970319

Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes. DCCT/EDIC Research Group, Nathan DM, Bebu I, Hainsworth D, Klein R, Tamborlane W, Lorenzi G, Gubitosi-Klug R, Lachin JM. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 20;376(16):1507-1516. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1612836. PMID: 28423305

Preservation of Reduced Numbers of Insulin-Positive Cells in Sulfonylurea-Unresponsive KCNJ11-Related Diabetes. Greeley SA, Zielinski MC, Poudel A, Ye H, Berry S, Taxy JB, Carmody D, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Wood JR, Hara M. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Jan 1;102(1):1-5. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-2826. PMID: 27802092


A Rare Case Report of Immobility-Induced Hypercalcemia in an Infant. Vyas N, Kaminski B, MacLeish S. Pediatrics 2016:137(4):e20150879.

Challenges in the diagnosis and management of disorders of sex development. Kutney K, Konczal L, Kaminski B, Uli N. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2016 Dec;108(4):293-308. doi: 10.1002/bdrc.21147. PMID: 28033665

Vitamin D status in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) is not worse than in youth without diabetes. Wood JR, Connor CG, Cheng P, Ruedy KJ, Tamborlane WV, Klingensmith G, Schatz D, Gregg B, Cengiz E, Willi S, Bacha F, Beck RW; Pediatric Diabetes Consortium. Pediatr Diabetes. 2016 Dec;17(8):584-591. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12340. PMID: 26611890

Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Fitness: Family Environment Relationship Correlates and Self-Esteem as a Mediator among Adolescents Who Are Overweight or Obese. Nock NL, Ievers-Landis CE, Dajani R, Knight D, Rigda A, Narasimhan S, Uli N. Child Obes. 2016 Oct;12(5):360-7. doi: 10.1089/chi.2016.0007. PMID: 27243476

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