Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is done to treat an aneurysm. An aneurysm is a bulging, weak spot in the aorta that may be at risk for rupturing. In this case, the aneurysm is in part of the aorta that is in the abdomen.
An amputation is the surgical removal of a all or part of an arm or leg due to injury, infection, or injury.
You may need regular blood tests to keep track of how well you and your doctor are managing a condition such as diabetes or high cholesterol.
In cardiac catheterization (often called cardiac cath), a very small hollow tube, or catheter, is advanced from a blood vessel in the groin or arm through the aorta into the heart. Once it is in place, several diagnostic and treatment procedures can be done using catheterization.
A carotid artery duplex scan is an imaging test to look at how blood flows through the carotid arteries in your neck.
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical treatment for carotid artery disease. The carotid arteries are the main blood vessels that carry oxygen and blood to the brain. In carotid artery disease, these arteries become narrowed. This reduces blood flow to the brain and could cause a stroke.
This procedure guides a tube into your heart to destroy small areas of heart tissue that may be causing your abnormal heartbeat.
A chest X-ray is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look at the structures and organs in your chest. It can help your healthcare provider see how well your lungs and heart are working. Certain heart problems can cause changes in your lungs. Certain diseases can cause changes in the structure of the heart or lungs.
CT angiography is a type of medical test that combines a CT scan with an injection of a special dye to produce pictures of blood vessels and tissues in a part of your body.
A computed tomography (CT) scan is a type of imaging test. It uses X-rays and a computer to make images or slices of the body. A CT scan can make detailed pictures of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, organs, and blood vessels. They are more detailed than regular X-rays.
Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a procedure used to treat coronary artery disease. One way to treat the blocked or narrowed arteries is to bypass the blocked portion of the coronary artery with a piece of a healthy blood vessel from elsewhere in the body.
A dobutamine stress echocardiogram is a diagnostic test to assess the heart muscle under stress. If exercise on a treadmill is not an option (too much stress on the heart) due to a person's medical condition, a doctor may use an intravenous medicine called dobutamine. Dobutamine causes the heart to beat faster and will mimic the effects of exercise on the heart.
An echocardiogram is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the heart's function and structures.
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the simplest and fastest tests used to evaluate the heart. Electrodes (small, plastic patches that stick to the skin) are placed at certain locations on the chest, arms, and legs. When the electrodes are connected to an ECG machine by lead wires, the electrical activity of the heart is measured, interpreted, and printed out.
An electrophysiologic study uses small, thin wire electrodes placed directly on the heart to evaluate you for an abnormal heart rhythm.
An exercise echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasound, or sound wave technology, is used to asses the heart's response to stress or exercise.
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the simplest and fastest tests used to evaluate the heart. For this test, electrodes (small, plastic patches that stick to the skin) are placed at certain spots on the chest, arms, and legs. When the electrodes are connected to an ECG machine by wires, the electrical activity of the heart is measured, interpreted, and printed out.
Femoral popliteal bypass surgery is used to treat blocked femoral artery. The femoral artery is the largest artery in the thigh. It supplies oxygen-rich blood to the leg. Blockage is due to plaque buildup or atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis in the leg arteries causes peripheral vascular disease. The same process causes heart disease and stroke.
A heart transplant is surgery done to remove the diseased heart from a person and replace it with a healthy one from an organ donor.
Heart valve repair or replacement surgery is a treatment option for valvular heart disease. When heart valves become damaged or diseased, they may not function properly. Conditions which may cause heart valve dysfunction are valvular stenosis and valvular insufficiency (regurgitation).
The Holter monitor is a type of electrocardiogram (ECG) used to record an ECG tracing of the heart continuously for 24 hours or longer.
An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is a small electronic device used to continuously monitor and help regulate potentially fast and life-threatening electrical problems with the heart.
Endovenous laser varicose vein surgery is a procedure that uses heat from a laser to reduce varicose veins. Varicose veins are swollen, bulging veins that often happen on the thighs or calves. A laser is a device that sends a thin beam of radiation in the form of light.
Magnetic resonance angiography or MRA is a type of imaging test that allows a healthcare provider to look at the body's blood vessels.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses a large magnet, radio signals, and a computer to make images of organs and tissue in the body. In this case, the heart is imaged. MRI may be used instead of a CT scan when organs or soft tissues are being studied.
Myocardial perfusion is an imaging test. It's also called a nuclear stress test. It is done to show how well blood flows through the heart muscle. It also shows how well the heart muscle is pumping. For example, after a heart attack, it may be done to find areas of damaged heart muscle. This test may be done during rest and while you exercise.
Myocardial perfusion is an imaging test. It's also called a nuclear stress test. It is done to show how well blood flows through the heart muscle. It also shows how well the heart muscle is pumping.
A pacemaker is a small electronic device that helps regulate slow electrical problems in the heart. The pacemaker is usually implanted in the chest, just below the collarbone. A pacemaker may be recommended to keep the heartbeat from slowing down to a dangerously low rate.
Angioplasty, also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is a procedure used to open blocked coronary arteries (caused by coronary artery disease) and restore blood flow to the heart muscle without open-heart surgery.
A resting RNA is a type of nuclear medicine test. A tiny amount of radioactive tracer is used during the scan. This test helps evaluate how well the heart pumps and how much blood is pumped with each heartbeat.
A resting and exercise radionuclide angiogram (RNA) is a type of nuclear medicine test. A tiny amount of radioactive substance is used to help show the heart's chambers in motion. This test can show how well the heart pumps with each heartbeat and how much blood is pumped with each heartbeat, during exercise and at rest.
Right heart catheterization allows a surgeon to use a small, thin hollow tube called a catheter to examine your heart.
In a right-heart catheterization with heart tissue biopsy, your doctor takes tissue samples directly from your heart muscle.
Robotic cardiac surgery is a form of heart surgery done through very small incisions in the chest, tiny instruments, and a robotic device operated by a surgeon.
A tilt table test is a test done to evaluate symptoms of syncope (fainting) by creating changes in posture and see how your heart and blood pressure respond.
A transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) uses echocardiography to assess how well the heart works. During the procedure, a transducer (like a microphone) is lowered into the esophagus. It sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic sound waves move through the skin and other body tissues to the heart tissues, where the waves bounce or "echo" off of the heart structures.
An ultrafast CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to look at your heart. The scan takes pictures very quickly. It gives your healthcare provider many details about your heart that other imaging tests cannot.
Valvuloplasty is a procedure done to repair a stiff heart valve. It is done using a catheter and small incisions.
Vascular studies use ultrasound (sound wave) technology to assess the flow of blood in arteries and veins in the arms, legs, and neck.
A venogram is a test that lets your healthcare provider see the veins in your body, especially in your legs. A special dye is injected that can been seen on an X-ray. The dye lets your healthcare provider see your veins and how healthy they are.
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a procedure to treat an aneurysm in the upper part of your aorta. The aorta is your body's largest artery. An aneurysm is a weak, bulging area in the aorta wall. If it bursts (ruptures), it can be deadly.
A blood transfusion is when blood is put into the body. During a blood transfusion, your child receives donated blood through one of his or her blood vessels.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) transcatheter closure is a procedure to fix a hole in the atrial septum. Read on to learn more about this procedure.
A Ross procedure is a type of surgery. It fixes a birth defect in the heart that affects the aortic valve.
Double outlet right ventricle surgery is a procedure that fixes a type of heart malformation called double outlet right ventricle (DORV).
Pulmonary atresia is a condition in which the heart lacks a pulmonary valve. This surgery improves blood flow through the heart and out to the lungs.
Pulmonary atresia is a condition in which the heart lacks a pulmonary valve. This surgery improves blood flow through the heart and out to the lungs.
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a condition where the vessels from the lungs take an abnormal path back to the heart. TAPVR surgery is open heart surgery to fix this problem.
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) surgery is a type of heart surgery. It fixes an abnormal hole between the left and right ventricles of the heart.
Transcatheter closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a type of heart procedure. It fixes a hole between the left and right ventricles of the heart, without making an incision in the chest wall.
Alcohol septal ablation is a minimally invasive procedure for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a condition in which your heart muscle is abnormally thick. The purpose of the procedure is to decrease your symptoms and to reduce future complications.
The ankle brachial index, or ABI, is a simple test that compares the blood pressure in the upper and lower limbs. It is one way to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Anomalous coronary artery intervention is a type of procedure to correct a problem with the coronary artery. Read on to learn more about this procedure.
A minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is a surgery to replace a badly working aortic valve with an artificial valve. The aortic valve is one of the heart's four valves. The valves help blood flow through the heart's 4 chambers and out to your body normally. The surgery is called “minimally invasive” because it uses a smaller incision than a traditional open repair.
An open, invasive aortic valve replacement is a surgery to replace a poorly working aortic valve with an artificial valve. An open, invasive aortic valve replacement is a surgery to replace a poorly working aortic valve with an artificial valve.
Many people who have a stroke are left with problems with one of their arms. Proper arm care after a stroke can help treat these problems with your arm. It can also help prevent new problems from starting. Arm care after a stroke includes techniques such as proper positioning.
Atrial fibrillation ablation is a procedure to treat atrial fibrillation. It uses small burns or freezes to cause some scarring on the inside of the heart to help break up the electrical signals that cause irregular heartbeats. This can help the heart maintain a normal heart rhythm.
The Maze procedure is a type of heart surgery to treat atrial fibrillation.
Angioplasty and stenting is a procedure to improve the blood flow in an artery or vein. It involves threading a thin tube with a balloon at its tip through the artery to the blocked portion. The balloon is inflated opening up the artery. A stent is placed to prop it open. A stent is a mesh tube.
Cardioversion is a procedure used to return an abnormal heartbeat to a normal rhythm. This procedure is used when the heart is beating very fast or irregular. This is called an arrhythmia. In chemical cardioversion, medicines are used to get the heart back to a normal rhythm. It is different from electrical cardioversion. This is where an energy shock is used to bring back a normal heart rhythm.
Coarctation of the aorta is an abnormal narrowing of the aorta. The aorta is the large blood vessel that exits the heart. Transcatheter dilation is procedure that can treat the aorta without open heart surgery.
Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices are used to help prevent blood clots in the deep veins of the legs. The devices use cuffs around the legs that fill with air and squeeze your legs. This increases blood flow through the veins of your legs and helps prevent blood clots.
Cardioversion is a procedure used to return an abnormal heartbeat to a normal rhythm. This procedure is used when the heart is beating very fast or irregular. This is called an arrhythmia. Arrhythmias can cause problems such as fainting, stroke, heart attack and even sudden cardiac death. With electrical cardioversion, a low-energy shock is sent to the heart to reset a normal rhythm. It is different from chemical cardioversion, in which medications are used to try to restore a normal rhythm.
Endovascular repair is a type of treatment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm, or AAA. This is a bulge in the wall of the large artery below your heart that is at risk for rupture. During the procedure, the weak section of the aorta is treated to prevent it from tearing.
An event monitor is a portable device used to record your heart's electrical activity when you have symptoms. It records the same information as an electrocardiogram (ECG), but for longer durations of time. Most of these devices can transmit the recorded information directly to your healthcare provider. This allows him or her to analyze the electrical activity of your heart while you are having symptoms.
An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a small device that can stop blood clots from going up into the lungs. The inferior vena cava is a large vein in the middle of your body. The device is put in during a brief surgery.
An intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a type of therapeutic device. It helps your heart pump more blood. You may need it if your heart is unable to pump enough blood for your body.
Many people have surgically implanted cardiac devices. These devices include pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators or ICDs. Pacemakers can help treat slow heart rhythms, and ICDs stop dangerous rapid heart rhythms.
An implantable loop recorder (ILR) is a device that helps the heart. The machine works as an electrocardiogram (ECG), constantly picking up electrical signals from your heart.
An open mitral valve replacement is a surgery to replace a poorly working mitral valve with an artificial valve. The mitral valve, one of the heart's four valves, helps blood flow through the heart and out to the body. The mitral valve lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Your doctor will replace your poorly working mitral valve with an artificial valve. This will ensure that blood can flow into the left ventricle and then flow out to the body normally, without putting extra stress on the heart. The surgery is called “open” because it uses a traditional larger incision to expose the heart. This incision is larger than the incision used in minimally invasive mitral valve replacement surgery.
Coronary artery bypass surgery is commonly known as CABG. It's a type of heart surgery. Surgeons do this type of surgery to bypass blockages in the coronary arteries.
Percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy (PBP) is a procedure done to drain excess fluid in the sac around the heart.
Percutaneous transcatheter treatment is one type of therapy for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). DVT is a blood clot that forms in a large vein deep in the body. It happens most often in a leg. The procedure uses a long thin tube to help remove the blood the clot.
A pericardial window is a procedure in which a small part of the sac around the heart is surgically removed to drain excess fluid.
A pericardiectomy is a procedure done on the sac around the heart. A surgeon cuts away this sac or a large part of this sac. This allows the heart to move freely.
Pericardiocentesis is a procedure to remove fluid that has built up in the sac around the heart. It is done using a needle and small catheter to drain excess fluid.
Septal myectomy is a type of open-heart surgery for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (thick heart muscle). It decreases symptoms of the condition.
Surgical thrombectomy is a type of surgery to remove a blood clot from inside an artery or vein.
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a small hole between the two upper chambers of the heart, the right and the left atrium. A robotic-assisted patent foramen repair is a type of surgery to fix this hole in the heart.
Congenital pulmonary stenosis is a health problem present from birth. It's when the pulmonary valve in your heart doesn't fully open. Congenital pulmonary stenosis balloon valvuloplasty is a type of procedure that aims to fix this problem. It does so without the need for open heart surgery.
Congenital pulmonary stenosis is when the pulmonary valve doesn't fully open. This health problem is present from birth. Congenital pulmonary stenosis surgery aims to fix this problem. It is a type of open heart surgery.
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a small hole between the 2 upper chambers of the heart, the right and the left atrium. Patent foramen transcatheter repair is a procedure to fix this hole in the heart.
Pulmonary artery catheterization is when a long, thin tube called a catheter is inserted into a pulmonary artery. It can help diagnose and manage a wide variety of health problems.
Therapeutic hypothermia is a type of treatment. It's sometimes used for people who have a cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest happens when the heart suddenly stops beating. Once the heart starts beating again, healthcare providers use cooling devices to lower your body temperature for a short time. It's lowered to around 89°F to 93°F (32°C to 34°C). The treatment usually lasts about 24 hours.
Transradial cardiac catheterization is a procedure used to treat and diagnose certain heart conditions. It is also known as transradial cardiac cath.
Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are heart devices. They are surgically placed in people. Pacemakers are used to treat slow heart rhythms. ICDs stop dangerous
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a type of treatment to help correct serious heart rhythm problems. It involves placing a device under your skin that is connected to the heart's ventricles. The device sends electrical signals to help them pump the way they should.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), also referred to as transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), is a procedure that replaces your diseased aortic valve with a man-made valve.
An aortic dissection is a tear (dissection) in the wall of your body's main artery, the aorta. Treatment will depend on where the tear is located. You will most likely need surgery if the tear is on the ascending aorta. This is the part of the aorta that goes up through your chest toward your head.
An bulging, weakened portion of the aorta is at risk for rupture and life-threatening bleeding. Surgery to repair it involves replacing the weak portion with an artificial graft.
In open mitral valve repair, open heart surgery is done to repair a leaky mitral valve.
A minimally invasive mitral valve replacement is a procedure to replace a poorly working mitral valve with an artificial valve. The mitral valve helps blood flow through the heart and out to the body. Your doctor will use an artificial valve to replace your poorly working mitral valve.
The tricuspid heart valve is found between the right atrium and the right ventricle. This valve can leak or narrow. When this happens, it requires surgery to repair.
Doppler flow is a type of ultrasound. It uses sound waves to measure the flow of blood through a blood vessel. The results are shown on a computer screen in lines called waveforms. It’s sometimes called Doppler velocimetry. A Doppler flow study may be used during pregnancy to check the health of the unborn baby (fetus).
A biventricular assist device (BiVAD) is an implantable pump designed to help your heart function better when both sides of your heart are failing.