Orthopaedics

Septic arthritis is an infection in the joint fluid (synovial fluid) and joint tissues. It occurs more often in children than in adults.

Detailed information on bone cancer in children, including Ewing sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma

The outside of a cast can be made of plaster or fiberglass. Cotton and synthetic materials line the inside of the cast to make it soft and to provide padding around bony areas, such as the wrist or elbow.

Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

A congenital limb defect is when an arm or leg doesn't form normally as a baby grows in the uterus. The baby is born with the defect.

Clubfoot is a deformity of the foot. It's when one or both feet are turned inward. The condition affects the bones, muscles, tendons, and blood vessels.

Hold the top part of the crutch firmly between the chest and the inside of the upper arm. Do not allow the top of the crutch to push up into the armpit. It is possible to damage nerves and blood vessels with constant pressure.

In a normal hip joint, the top (head) of the thighbone (femur) fits snugly into the hip socket. In a child with DDH, the hip socket is shallow. As a result, the head of the femur may slip in and out.

A dislocation is a joint injury. It occurs when the ends of 2 connected bones come apart. Dislocations happen more often among teens.

Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thighbone (femur). This health problem causes a child's knees and feet to turn inward. The child may have a pigeon-toed appearance.

A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture happens, it is classified as either open or closed.

Detailed information on the most common growth-related disorders in children

Detailed information on the most common types of inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. JIA is arthritis that affects 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks in a child age 16 or younger.

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (or Perthes disease) is a rare hip condition that affects children.

Lordosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It's when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) in the lower back curve inward more than normal.

Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth. It causes the front half of the child's foot (forefoot) to turn inward.

Nursemaid's elbow is a type of elbow injury. It's when a forearm bone (radius) slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited (genetic) bone disorder that is present at birth. It is also known as brittle bone disease. A child born with OI may have soft bones that break (fracture) easily, bones that are not formed normally, and other problems. Signs and symptoms may range from mild to severe.

Detailed information on each member of the pediatric orthopedic treatment team

Osteomyelitis is an infection of a bone by a germ (bacteria or fungus). In children, infection in the long bones of the arms and legs are most common. A child with osteomyelitis will be referred to an orthopedist (doctor specializing in treating bone and joint problems) for evaluation and treatment.

Osteosarcoma is cancer of the bone. The cancer (malignant) cells make immature bone cells (osteoid). Osteosarcoma is rare, but it is the most common type of bone cancer in children and teens. It is most common when teens have growth spurts. That is between the ages of 13 and 16.

Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

Detailed information on sports safety, including safety gear and equipment

Detailed information on evaluation procedures used to diagnosis orthopedic disorders in children.

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a condition of the hip joint that affects children. In SCFE, the ball of the thighbone (femoral head) slips off the neck of the thighbone.

Detailed information on orthopaedic disorders in children

Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

Tibial torsion is an inward twisting of the shinbones. These bones are located between the knee and the ankle. Tibial torsion causes a child's feet to turn inward.

Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.

Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

Kyphosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It's when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) in the upper back curve outward more than they should.

Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition in children. It's when the tendon in a knee becomes injured and inflamed.

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is an inherited (genetic) disorder of the muscles. It is called a neuromuscular disease. There are several types. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a rare type.

Scoliosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It's when the spine has a side-to-side curve. The curve of the spine measures 10 degrees or more.

Sprains and strains are types of injuries. A sprain is an injury to a ligament while a strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon.

Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury. It happens when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

Acute osteomyelitis is an infection in the bone. It develops over a short time, usually about 2 weeks. In children, osteomyelitis is more common in the long bones of the arms and legs. But it can affect any bone in the body. Osteomyelitis can happen in children of any age. About half of the time, it happens in children under 5 years of age.

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