Growth and Development

Symptoms of eye problems in children include crossed eyes, redness in the eyes, squinting, and excessive tearing.

Your child now says da-da and ma-ma, and possibly 2 other words, as well. He or she can also make a simple gesture, such as shaking the head.

At this stage of growth, your baby will gain 1-1/2 to 2 pounds in weight and more than an inch in height each month.

This age is very social, and babies begin moving in much more purposeful ways.

A baby of this age rolls over easily from front to back and back to front, and bounces when supported to stand.

A helpful look at age-appropriate hearing milestones for babies and toddlers.

Here are guidelines on speech and language development that may help you decide if your child is experiencing hearing problems.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior disorder. It is often first diagnosed in childhood.

Detailed information on adolescence, ages 13 to 18 years

The teen years are a time of growth spurts, puberty changes, and emotional and social development. Here's what you need to know.

The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.

Amenorrhea is when a girl's menstrual bleeding (period) doesn't occur.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder. It is a form of self-starvation. Children and teens with this health problem have a distorted body image. They think they weigh too much.

Autism spectrum disorder is a problem that affects a child's nervous system and growth and development. It often shows up during a child's first 3 years of life.

Young children may bite others out of frustration or stress, or because they feel powerless. Infants and toddlers often bite as a way of exploring their world.

Orthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on the development, prevention, and correction of irregularities of the teeth, bite, and jaws.

Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

Detailed information on breast health for children

You should begin brushing your child's teeth around 24 months of age, or as directed by your child's doctor. Children will need help brushing their teeth until they are 7 to 8 years old.

Detailed information on common dental problems and concerns in children

Chickenpox is a common childhood disease that causes an itchy, blistering rash and is easily spread to others.

Cradle cap (infant seborrheic dermatitis) is scaly patches on a baby's scalp. Cradle cap isn’t serious, but it can cause thick crusting and white or yellow scales. Some babies can also have seborrheic dermatitis in the diaper area, and on the face, neck, and trunk. Cradle cap usually clears up within the first year.

Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, tiredness, and even loneliness.

Detailed information on dental health in children

Generally, dental examinations and cleanings are recommended every six months for children. Encourage good oral hygiene at home by helping your child brush his or her own teeth.

Detailed information on the most common dental procedures, including braces, bleaching, bridges, dentures, dental implants, fillings, root canal, sealants, and wisdom teeth extraction

Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.

You have 2 choices in diapers--cloth or disposable. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.

Detailed information on disciplining a child, including information on time-out, temper tantrum, lying, stealing, and television and children

Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are serious illnesses. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children to provide protection against all 3 diseases.

Exercise is an important part of keeping children healthy. Encouraging healthy lifestyles in children and teens is important for when they grow older.

It's important to feed your baby a variety of healthy foods at the proper time. Solid foods should not be started before 4 months of age.

The system that controls body temperature is not well developed in a newborn. Here's what you need to know about fever and your baby.

Detailed information on female physical development

Each child is different, but most children need to be given clear rules about behavior.

Detailed information on the growth and development of a child

Detailed information on gynecological health of a child

Detailed information on gynecological problems in a child

Vaginal bleeding and discharge are a normal part of a teen girl's menstrual cycle. If your daughter notices anything different or unusual, talk with your teen's healthcare provider.

An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.

Eating healthy is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and is something that should be taught to children at a young age.

A look at the 3 different types of hearing loss, and what causes them.

Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.

Detailed information on proper health maintenance for a child

Detailed information on health promotion and common health problems in children

Detailed information on immunizations for adults and children, including a current immunization schedule

Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

Detailed information on proper health maintenance for a child

Detailed information on infant health

Choosing how to feed your baby is an important decision that has life-long effects for your baby and for you.

If you know anything about your baby's sleeping pattern, it's probably that it doesn't coincide with yours. But learning more about your baby's nighttime and daytime sleep needs can help you recognize what's normal, and what's not.

Hang brightly colored objects near your newborn. Sing and talk to your baby. Rock your baby, and take him or her for walks.

Kyphosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It's when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) in the upper back curve outward more than they should.

Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.

Major depression goes beyond the day's normal ups and downs. It involves a teen's body, mood, and thoughts. It can affect and disrupt eating, sleeping, or thinking patterns.

In an uncircumcised boy, the foreskin will begin to separate from the tip of the penis. This happens naturally while the boy is a baby. This is called foreskin retraction.

Detailed information on what males can expect during a physical examination

Most healthcare providers recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.

Detailed information on male growth and development

The MMR vaccine is given in two doses - at 12 to 15 months and at 4 to 6 years, or at least one month after the first dose.

Mouthguards are important to help protect your child's mouth and teeth from serious injury.

A helpful look at what to expect with your newborn—from your baby's growth and reflexes to crying and emotional development.

Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

Detailed nutrition information for mothers who are breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, and toddlers, preschool-aged children, school-aged children, and adolescents

Your child is a toddler now and very active! He or she can climb stairs while holding on and play with push and pull toys.

Anyone can feel sad or depressed at times. But mood disorders are more intense. They are harder to handle than normal feelings of sadness. Read on to learn more about these types of disorders in teens.

Girls experience puberty as a sequence of events, and their pubertal changes usually begin before boys of the same age. The first pubertal change in girls usually is breast development.

During puberty, a teenage boy will grow taller and heavier, and hormones will lead to sexual maturity.

Children go through distinct stages of play as they grow. Each stage is critically important to the development of the next.

Detailed information on the stages of play for all ages

Pneumococcus bacteria can cause serious illness in children, including pneumonia, infection in the blood, and meningitis.

The poliovirus destroys the nervous system, causing paralysis. Today, polio is extremely rare in the United States because of the polio vaccine. It's still common in other countries, though, so children still need to be immunized.

Detailed information on preschool-aged children, ages 4 to 5 years

Children at this age begin to understand concepts and can compare abstract ideas.

A preschooler needs space in which to run and explore. Take him or her on trips to the playground, park, or beach. Encourage him or her to play with other children.

The only safe sex is no sex, most health care providers say. But certain precautions and safe behaviors can minimize a person's risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.

Although friendships become more important at this age, children are still fond of their parents and like being part of a family. Read on to learn more.

Detailed information on the school-aged child, ages 6 to 12 years

Scoliosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It's when the spine has a side-to-side curve. The curve of the spine measures 10 degrees or more.

Dental sealants are thin, plastic films painted on the chewing surfaces of the molars and premolars. They are highly effective in preventing tooth decay.

Separation anxiety usually begins around 6 months of age. Babies may suddenly be afraid of familiar people, such as babysitters or grandparents.

Detailed information on proper health maintenance for a child

Detailed information on healthy sleep habits of children, including information on nightmares and night terrors

The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.

Detailed information on speech, language, and hearing problems during development

There are many reasons why a child would feel anxious and not want to go to school. Read on to learn more about school refusal.

Stuttering is a speech problem. The normal flow of speech is disrupted. A child who stutters repeats or prolongs sounds, syllables, or words. Stuttering is different from repeating words when learning to speak. Stuttering may make it difficult for a child to communicate with others.

Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.

Many children watch too much digital media, which includes TV, the internet, and smart devices. Learn why too much screen time is not good for kids--and how to set limits and establish good viewing habits.

These fits of rage - the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor - are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often happen only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

Most 3-year-olds have lost the rounded tummy of a toddler. Your child can use a spoon well and can wash and dry his or her hands.

Failure to thrive (FTT) is slow physical development in a baby or child. It's caused by a baby or child not having enough nutrition.

Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

Time-out is a type of discipline that is used to stop bad behavior in a child. It takes the child out of the situation and gives him or her time to calm down.

Read on to learn more about toilet training, from signs your child is ready to helpful tips for potty training success.

Detailed information on toddler health

Ideas for toddler toys: a rocking horse, a shovel and a bucket, and toys that can be pushed or pulled.

Speech at this age is becoming clearer. Your child has a vocabulary of 200 to 300 words and can tell his or her age and name.

Detailed information on a child's vision milestones

Detailed information on children with vision problems

Many types of vision tests can be used to check your child's ability to see. Some of them can be used at any age, and some are used based on your child's age and understanding.

Eye disorders in children are either refractive or nonrefractive errors. Refractive errors are caused by the shape of the eye. Nonrefractive errors are caused by disease.

A closer look at the structure of the breast.

A woman is generally most fertile (able to become pregnant) a few days before, during, and after ovulation.

Women suffer more frequent and severe symptoms from STDs. Some STDs can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can lead to both infertility and ectopic pregnancy.

Vaginitis is a common problem for women of all ages. Bacteria, yeast, viruses, and chemicals in creams or sprays can cause it.

Vulvitis is inflammation of the soft folds of skin outside the vagina.

Because most mouths are too small for the 4 additional molars called wisdom teeth, these teeth usually must be removed.

When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis. Here's what you need to know.

Your breasts change at different stages of your life. Breast self-awareness is knowing how your breasts normally look and feel. This can help you to find even small changes right away.

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression. A child with this disorder has a low, sad, or irritable mood for at least 1 year.

Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

Teeth that have tooth decay must be repaired. Advances in dental materials and techniques provide new, effective ways to restore teeth.

Flossing should be started when your child is about 2 to 3 years old, under the direction of your child's dentist. Read on for helpful tips, including step-by-step flossing directions.

Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay, strengthens tooth enamel, and reduces the harmful effects of plaque.

If your baby seems fussy and you've fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don't worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

A learning disorder is when a child has trouble learning in certain school subjects. Your child may have problems with reading, math, or writing. Here's what you need to know, and how to help.

There are 2 main types of breast pain. The most common type is linked to the menstrual cycle and is almost always hormonal.

The male reproductive anatomy includes the bladder, epididymis, penis, scrotum, and prostate gland.

A Pap test, along with a pelvic examination, is an important part of a female's routine health care because it may detect abnormalities that can lead to invasive cancer.

Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) are severe, painful cramps that occur with menstruation.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of emotional and physical symptoms many women have in the days before their period starts. Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines can help manage symptoms.

Detailed information on the prevention of oral diseases and dental problems

Tooth decay is the breakdown of tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer surface of a tooth. Tooth decay can lead to cavities.

A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably. This overeating may be followed by self-induced throwing up (purging).

Bipolar disorder is a type of depression. A teen with bipolar disorder often has extreme mood swings. These mood swings go beyond the day's normal ups and downs.

Preschool children are still developing their eating habits and need encouragement to eat healthy meals and snacks.

Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.

Eating healthy after-school snacks is important at this age, as these snacks may contribute up to one-third of the total calorie intake for the day.

Mealtime with a toddler can be challenging, because children at this age are striving for independence and control. It's best to provide structure and set limits.

Encopresis is when your child leaks stool into his or her underwear. It is also called stool soiling. It is most often because of long-term (chronic) constipation. Encopresis happens to children ages 4 and older who have already been toilet trained.

A person with fluency disorder has trouble speaking in a fluid or flowing way. They may repeat parts of words (stutter) or speak fast and jam words together (clutter).

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