Adolescent Medicine

Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores.

An adjustment disorder is an unhealthy emotional or behavioral reaction to a stressful event or change in a person's life. The response happens within 3 months of the stressful event.

Detailed information on adolescent mental health disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, major depression, dysthymia, manic depression (bipolar disorder), teen suicide, anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, behavior disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, substance abuse/chemical dependence, and adjustment disorders

Children should wear protective eyewear during sports and recreational activities. In the classroom, they should wear eye protection when doing lab experiments.

The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.

Detailed information on adolescent growth and development

Detailed information on adolescent health problems and injuries, including acne, asthma, breast conditions, breast self-examination, diabetes, eye care, eye safety, gynecological conditions, menstrual conditions, gynecologic problems, pap test, vaginitis, vulvitis, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), high blood pressure, infectious mononucleosis, obesity, oral health, orthodontics, braces, wisdom teeth extraction, periodontal disease, orthopedic problems, osgood schlatter disease, scoliosis, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, sexually transmitted diseases, safer sex guidelines, sports safety, sports injuries, sprains, strains, tennis elbow, mouthguards, heat related illness, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke

Amenorrhea is when a girl's menstrual bleeding (period) doesn't occur.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder. It is a form of self-starvation. Children and teens with this health problem have a distorted body image. They think they weigh too much.

Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder

Skateboards should never be used on surface streets. Your child should wear protective gear, such as helmets, padding, and closed-toe and slip-resistant shoes.

Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

Your breasts change at different stages of your life. Breast self-awareness is knowing how your breasts normally look and feel. This can help you to find even small changes right away.

The cholesterol in blood comes from two sources: the foods your teen eats and his or her liver. The liver, however, makes all of the cholesterol your teen's body needs.

Cognitive development means the growth of a child's ability to think and reason. This growth happens differently from ages 6 to 12, and ages 12 to 18.

Conduct disorder is a type of behavior disorder. It’s when a child has antisocial behavior. He or she may disregard basic social standards and rules.

Detailed information on special considerations for teenagers with diabetes

Although it is not a perfect measure, BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your teen's body is composed of fat.

Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) are severe, painful cramps that occur with menstruation.

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression. A child with this disorder has a low, sad, or irritable mood for at least 1 year.

Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

Teens need at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days for good health and fitness and for healthy weight during growth.

Detailed information on firearm safety and prevention

Detailed information on female physical development

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health problem. A child with GAD has a lot of worry and fear that seems to have no real cause.

Detailed information on the most common gynecological and menstrual conditions that affect adolescents

Vaginal bleeding and discharge are a normal part of a teen girl's menstrual cycle. If your daughter notices anything different or unusual, talk with your teen's healthcare provider.

Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. High blood pressure (hypertension) means that the pressure inside the arteries is too high. This higher pressure may harm the arteries and cause the heart to work harder.

Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

Detailed information on healthy lifestyle choices for teenagers

Major depression goes beyond the day's normal ups and downs. It involves a teen's body, mood, and thoughts. It can affect and disrupt eating, sleeping, or thinking patterns.

In an uncircumcised boy, the foreskin will begin to separate from the tip of the penis. This happens naturally while the boy is a baby. This is called foreskin retraction.

Detailed information on what males can expect during a physical examination

Bipolar disorder is a type of depression. A teen with bipolar disorder often has extreme mood swings. These mood swings go beyond the day's normal ups and downs.

Detailed information on the most common menstrual conditions, including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia

Infectious mononucleosis is a contagious illness. It’s common in teens and young adults.

Detailed information on the most common types of mood disorders, including major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder, and suicide

Detailed information on male growth and development

Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

A look at average height and weight ranges for kids, based on age.

For overweight children 7 and older, the initial goal is to keep them from gaining more weight. Changes in eating habits and exercise are gradually introduced to trim pounds.

Obesity is when a teen has too much body fat. Obesity is a serious, long-term disease.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder. A child with OCD has obsessive thoughts that are not wanted. They are linked to fears, such as touching dirty objects.

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. It is mostly diagnosed in childhood. Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures.

Detailed information on oral health problems and teens

Detailed information on orthopedic problems and teens

Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition in children. It's when the tendon in a knee becomes injured and inflamed.

Anyone can feel sad or depressed at times. But mood disorders are more intense. They are harder to handle than normal feelings of sadness. Read on to learn more about these types of disorders in teens.

Girls experience puberty as a sequence of events, and their pubertal changes usually begin before boys of the same age. The first pubertal change in girls usually is breast development.

During puberty, a teenage boy will grow taller and heavier, and hormones will lead to sexual maturity.

A Pap test, along with a pelvic examination, is an important part of a female's routine health care because it may detect abnormalities that can lead to invasive cancer.

A phobia is an excessive fear of an object or situation. It's a fear that lasts for at least 6 months. It is a type of anxiety disorder. Here's what you need to know.

Adolescent attention often shifts to a more intense focus on social interactions and friendships expanding from same sex friends to same sex groups of friends to heterosexual groups of friends.

Detailed information on safety and injury prevention for teens

The only safe sex is no sex, most health care providers say. But certain precautions and safe behaviors can minimize a person's risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.

Detailed information on sports safety

Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

Ninety percent of new smokers are children and teenagers. In many cases, they are replacing the smokers who quit or died prematurely from a smoking-related disease.

Sprains and strains are types of injuries. A sprain is an injury to a ligament while a strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon.

A detailed look at STIs and teens, from protection and treatment to different types of STIs.

Suicide is when a teen causes his or her own death on purpose. Before trying to take his or her own life, a teen may have thoughts of wanting to die. Read on to learn how to recognize the warning signs, and how to get your teen help.

Information on teen driving, including safety tips.

Adolescence is a stressful time of life even for physically healthy teens. Chronic illness further complicates adolescent development.

Encourage your adolescent to take swimming, diving, and water safety or rescue classes to give him or her the skills needed to swim and dive safely.

Chronic health problems during the teen years can often make physical and emotional development more complicated.

A closer look at the structure of the breast.

A woman is generally most fertile (able to become pregnant) a few days before, during, and after ovulation.

Vaginitis is a common problem for women of all ages. Bacteria, yeast, viruses, and chemicals in creams or sprays can cause it.

Vulvitis is inflammation of the soft folds of skin outside the vagina.

Many women continue working through their pregnancy without any problems. It depends on the type of work they do and their condition. Here's what you need to know.

The male reproductive anatomy includes the bladder, epididymis, penis, scrotum, and prostate gland.

Periodontal disease is a serious bacterial infection. It destroys the gums and the nearby tissues of the mouth.

Orthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on the development, prevention, and correction of irregularities of the teeth, bite, and jaws.

Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness. It is a long-lasting and disabling problem of the brain. A child with this disorder has unusual behavior and strange feelings.

Scoliosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It's when the spine has a side-to-side curve. The curve of the spine measures 10 degrees or more.

Mouthguards are important to help protect your child's mouth and teeth from serious injury.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of emotional and physical symptoms many women have in the days before their period starts. Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines can help manage symptoms.

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a condition of the hip joint that affects children. In SCFE, the ball of the thighbone (femoral head) slips off the neck of the thighbone.

Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury. It happens when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably. This overeating may be followed by self-induced throwing up (purging).

Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.

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