Stress Fractures of the Foot
What are stress fractures of the foot?
A stress fracture is a very small, fine break in the bone caused by continuous overuse. While stress fractures can occur in many bones that are subjected to repetitive activities, the bones of the legs and feet are at greatest risk. The bones in the midfoot (metatarsals) in runners are especially at risk for stress fractures.
What causes stress fractures of the foot?
A sudden increase in physical activity is often the cause of stress fractures in feet. The increase can be either in the frequency or the intensity of movement. Examples include such things as increasing the number of days you exercise from 2 to 4, or running 3 miles instead of your usual 1 mile. Stress fractures often occur in the foot after training for basketball, running, and other sports as well as in military recruits.
People who are not athletes can also get stress fractures. New shoes that fail to absorb repetitive walking forces can lead to stress fractures. Stress fractures also occur in people who walk unusually long distances or on uneven ground.
What are the symptoms of stress fractures of the foot?
A stress fracture may not cause obvious swelling. But symptoms can occur a bit differently in each person. Symptoms may include:
- Pain in the front of the foot, often after long or intense exercise sessions
- Pain that goes away after exercise, then returns when exercise is started again
The symptoms of stress fractures can be like other health conditions. Always see your doctor for a diagnosis.
How are stress fractures of the foot diagnosed?
Diagnosis of a stress fracture often is confirmed with a complete health history and a physical exam. X-rays often can’t see stress fractures because they are so fine. So a bone scan or an MRI may be done. Once callus forms around the fracture, an X-ray can confirm a stress fracture.
How are stress fractures of the foot treated?
Treatment is aimed at easing pain and giving the fracture time to heal. This often takes about 6 to 8 weeks. Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
Treatment may include:
- Protection of the fracture site with reduced weight bearing
- Cold packs
- Medicine such as ibuprofen
- Shock-absorbing shoes to use during exercise
- Running on soft surfaces, such as grass
- Physical therapy
- Switching to a less stressful activity, such as swimming or biking
- Wearing a brace or cast
Here are some tips from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons to help prevent stress fractures:
- Work up gradually. When starting any new sports activity, set incremental goals. For instance, don't immediately set out to run 5 miles a day. Instead, slowly build up your mileage on a weekly basis.
- Cross-train. This is alternating activities that accomplish the same fitness goals. It can help prevent injuries like stress fractures. Instead of running every day to meet cardiovascular goals, run on even days and bike on odd days. Add some strength training and flexibility exercises to the mix for the most benefit.
- Maintain a healthy diet. Make sure you incorporate calcium- and Vitamin D-rich foods in your meals.
- Use the correct equipment. Don't wear old or worn running shoes.
- Watch out for pain. If pain or swelling occurs, stop the activity right away and rest for a few days. If continued pain persists, see an orthopedic surgeon.
- Treat symptoms early. It's important to remember that if you recognize the symptoms early and treat them appropriately, you can return to sports at your normal playing level.
Key points about stress fractures of the foot
- A stress fracture is a very small, fine break in the bone caused by continuous overuse.
- The bones of the legs and feet are at greatest risk.
- The bones in the midfoot (metatarsals) in runners are especially at risk for stress fractures.
- A sudden increase in physical activity is often the cause of stress fractures in feet.
- Treatment is aimed at easing pain and giving the fracture time to heal. This often takes about 6 to 8 weeks.
- If you take the correct precautions when starting a new exercise program, you can prevent stress fractures.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.