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Douglas Rhee, MD

Douglas Rhee, MD

Ratings

(4.9)

256 Ratings 80 Reviews

Specialty

Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology-Glaucoma

Accepting New Patients

Schedule an Appointment

216-844-3601

Biography

  • Chair, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, UH Cleveland Medical Center
  • Director, Eye Institute, University Hospitals
  • Division Chief, Ophthalmology, UH Ahuja Medical Center
  • Professor, CWRU School of Medicine

Douglas J. Rhee, MD, arrived at the University Hospitals Eye Institute in 2013 as the Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences. He is a glaucoma specialist, molecular biologist and board-certified ophthalmologist. In 2016, Dr. Rhee was voted by The Ophthalmologist as one of the Power 100 (the most influential people in ophthalmology worldwide). Prior to UH, Dr. Rhee was an associate professor at Harvard Medical School serving the associate chief of operations for the Department of Ophthalmology at the Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary (MEEI).

Education and Training

Dr. Rhee was born in Buffalo, N.Y., and raised in Detroit. After graduating valedictorian of his high school, he entered the combined pre-medical/medical program at the University of Michigan Medical School. After graduating in the top 10 percent of his class (Alpha Omega Alpha), he then finished an internship at the University of Michigan affiliated Oakwood Hospital. Dr. Rhee completed his ophthalmology residency at Wills Eye Hospital (ranked No. 2 U.S. News & World Report) where he also served as co-chief resident. He was awarded a competitive Heed Fellowship award and completed a clinical glaucoma fellowship at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (ranked No. 1 U.S. News & World Report) and a post-doctoral laboratory fellowship at the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) investigating the molecular biology of eye pressure regulation. Dr. Rhee went on to serve as an attending physician on the glaucoma service of Wills Eye Hospital for four years, concurrently serving as a clinical consultant of the National Eye Institute for five years, and Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary and Children’s Hospital Boston for eight years prior to coming to the UH Eye Institute.

Clinical Interests and Contributions

Dr. Rhee cares for both adult and childhood glaucomas. He has an interest in complex and high-risk cases, rare clinical syndromes, as well as the more common forms of glaucoma. Some of Dr. Rhee’s clinical research interests include the outcomes of both traditional and novel/advanced surgical procedures. Dr. Rhee is often credited as being one of the few early pioneers that ushered in a new era of the surgical management of glaucoma – what has now become known as minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS). He was one of the first five surgeons in the world to perform the Trabectome procedure, which would later become recognized as the first MIGS procedure. He developed technique aspects for the procedure and his clinical outcomes research helped determine Trabectome’s place in our surgical armamentarium. Dr. Rhee is regarded as a key opinion leader in the surgical space and has often been first to bring new commercial technologies to the region or new investigational devices allowing early access to these technologies as part of FDA approved study protocols – e.g. first to perform Trabectome in New England and Northeast Ohio, first to implant commercially available iStent in New England, first to implant commercially available CyPass in Northeast Ohio, first to implant Hydrus device in Northeast Ohio (first as part of an FDA trial, later commercially available), first Glaukos G3 Supra in Northeast Ohio (FDA trial). Dr. Rhee has numerous publications evaluating these and other surgical techniques and technologies that impact for clinical practice.

Dr. Rhee is one of the few surgeons in the Midwest who also offers deep sclerectomy, an alternative to traditional glaucoma filtration surgery trabeculectomy. With the resources of the glaucoma service of UH Cleveland Medical Center, Dr. Rhee can offer the widest array of surgical procedures and implant devices available in the Midwest. Dr. Rhee has been included in the prestigious Best Doctors (Boston) since 2007 and has been recognized by Boston magazine as one of its “Best Doctors 2007-2008,” as well as Cleveland magazine since 2015.

Dr. Rhee has also contributed to our understanding of rare clinical syndromes, such as plateau iris, medication-induced (sulfonamide, corticosteroid, etc.), and idiopathic elevated episcleral venous pressure associated glaucoma. Dr. Rhee discovered that plateau iris syndrome is a familial condition and described the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern in 50 percent of affected individuals. He was one of the first to describe the rare condition of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma that can be caused by the medication topiramate; Dr. Rhee went on to describe the only effective treatment for severe cases of topiramate-induced angle closure. Dr. Rhee has also furthered the knowledge base of medication-induced (sulfonamide, corticosteroid, etc.) and idiopathic elevated episcleral venous pressure associated glaucoma.

The UH Eye Institute glaucoma service participates in numerous FDA phase 3 device and implant studies to include sustained release medication platforms and novel microshunts to lower eye pressure.

At the UH Eye Institute, Dr. Rhee receives regional, national and international referrals of patients seeking his care or expertise. Dr. Rhee sees patients at UH Eye Institute’s main facility as well as our Landerbrook and Westlake satellites.

Laboratory Research Interests

In addition to his main interest of caring for patients, Dr. Rhee’s scientific research is aimed at determining the cellular and molecular causes of glaucoma while developing disease modifying as a novel treatment approach. His laboratory investigates the molecular mechanisms of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation as it pertains to the health and disease of the drains of the eye i.e. trabecular meshwork (TM) and ciliary body. They first gained recognition in the mid-2000s by settling a long-standing debate on the mechanism of action of the most commonly prescribed medication class for the treatment of glaucoma – prostaglandin analogues (PGAs). One group felt that PGAs worked exclusively through the accessory drain of the eye, the ciliary body, while another group believed that PGAs had a significant effect on TM drainage as well. Dr. Rhee’s group found that PGAs effect both tissues and found that the balance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their kinetic inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), correlates to IOP lowering potency with PGAs. He was also able to explain that both groups were correct, and the differences they were observing were primarily an artifact of the model systems they were using. Their studies expanded to examine the synthesis/deposition aspect of ECM homeostasis.

It had been long believed that ECM homeostasis in the drains of the eye are critical to the normal physiology and that dysregulation is the only known primary pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma. However, the molecular controls of ECM homeostasis in the TM have remained elusive. Dr. Rhee believes that proteins that control ECM in other tissues would have a regulatory effect on ECM and hence, IOP, in the TM. His group was first to define the expression pattern, intracellular, and ultrastructural localization of SPARC, considered the prototypical matricellular protein, within the TM. We were also first to demonstrate that SPARC-null mice have a lower IOP than their corresponding wild-type mice due to enhanced aqueous outflow. Additionally, they demonstrated that SPARC overexpression increases IOP in perfused cadaveric human anterior segments corresponding to a qualitative change to the ECM of the juxtacanalicular TM. Furthermore, the cytokine transforming growth factor beta-2, which is heavily implicated in POAG, is unable to elevate the IOP in SPARC -/- mice. These findings strongly implicate SPARC as a pivotal regulatory node in ECM synthesis / accumulation. His lab is credited as having elucidated this key regulatory protein for outflow drainage and IOP control; to date, less than 10 proteins have achieved this level of recognition.

His work continues with SPARC with the hopes of developing new treatment for glaucoma. However, their work to reveal a previously unknown mechanism of SPARC, and potentially matricellular proteins as a class, are potentially generalizable to the numerous pro-fibrotic systemic diseases in which SPARC has been implicated e.g. hepatic fibrosis, renal nephrosis, scleroderma, etc. His research been supported the National Institutes of Health as well as several foundation (e.g. the American Glaucoma Society, Research to Prevent Blindness, Lions Research Fund) and industry grants.

Trainees in Dr. Rhee’s laboratory have won the James Shipman Award in 2003, Fight for Sight Student Fellowships in 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 (2), 2011, 2014, Ohio Research to Prevent Blindness in 2016, and been supported by the extremely competitive and prestigious Howard Hughes Medical Research Fellowships in 2011 (two separate students) and 2012.

Because of Dr. Rhee’s scientific achievement, leadership and vision, he was selected to serve on the very select and prestigious National Eye Advisory Council of the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (2015-2019) which assists, consults, and advises the NEI Director on matters related to activities carried out by and through the Institute.

Because of both his clinical and scientific background, Dr. Rhee is often asked to consult for numerous pharmaceutical and device manufacturers for activities ranging from collaborative research to clarify pharmacologic mechanisms of action to educating the physicians who will eventually train other ophthalmologists on novel technologies and pharmaceuticals.

Publications and Awards

Dr. Rhee has published over 95 scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals. He has received the competitive American Glaucoma Society’s Clinician-Scientist award in 2004 and 2005 (the maximum number allowed by the society). In 2008, the American Glaucoma Society honored Dr. Rhee with the inaugural the Mid-Career Physician-Scientist Award. In 2008, Dr. Rhee was awarded the competitive Research to Prevent Blindness Physician-Scientist Award from the Research to Prevent Blindness organization. These awards were given to support his research into eye pressure regulation.

Regional, National and International Leadership

Dr. Rhee is on the Executive Committee of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (2019 – present), currently serving as the role of secretary. He has served as the president-elect and president of the Cleveland Ophthalmological Society (2015-2017), president of the Korean-American Ophthalmologic Society (2012-2016), Chair of the Glaucoma Clinical Committee for the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (2006-2013) the vice president of the Massachusetts Society of Eye Physicians and Surgeons, on the board of directors of the American Glaucoma Society (2015-2017), the governing board for the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (2013-2019), and one of the selected few on the National Advisory Eye Council (a.k.a. “Council”) for the National Eye Institute (2015-2019).

Other Notable Achievements

Dr. Rhee has a long history of administrative leadership. While at Wills Eye Hospital, he served as the Medical Director of the Glaucoma Service Diagnostic Laboratory from 2004 through late 2005. He was awarded the Norman Knight Leadership Development Award in 2006 by Mass. Eye & Ear. In early 2007, Dr. Rhee began service as the Medical Director of the Mass Eye and Ear suburban centers in Stoneham and East Bridgewater, Mass. In 2008, Dr. Rhee’s duties expanded to serve as medical director of strategic network development. In 2010, his responsibilities at Mass Eye & Ear expanded to become the associate chief of practice development and finally in 2011 to associate chief of operations and practice development. In addition to serving as director of the University Hospitals Eye Institute and chairman of the Case Western Reserve University Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Dr. Rhee chaired the UH Medical Group Access Committee which has span over patient access across the entire University Hospitals health care system and now chairs the UH Medical Group Finance Committee.

Dr. Rhee is a leading educator of ophthalmologists. He serves on various scientific or curriculum committees for the American Academy of Ophthalmology, National Institutes of Health, American Glaucoma Society, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons, and American Board of Ophthalmology (the certifying organization for ophthalmologists). Dr. Rhee has served as an examiner for the American Board of Ophthalmology since 2006 and served one year in 2007 as a special examiner. In 2007, his contributions to the American Academy of Ophthalmology were recognized by the Achievement Award and in 2013 by the Senior Achievement Award; he was again recognized for the American Academy of Ophthalmology for distinguished educational contributions to the field by the Secretariat Award in 2014. Dr. Rhee has organized and developed the curricula for numerous regional and national meetings for the continuing education of his colleague ophthalmologists. In 2013, Dr. Rhee was named the chair of the Glaucoma Curriculum Committee for the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery which oversees the glaucoma content for all ASCRS activities. Dr. Rhee participates in the teaching of glaucoma to medical students, residents and fellows. He has been an invited speaker to over 270 meetings regionally, nationally and internationally. Dr. Rhee is an accomplished writer having co-authored the Wills Eye Drug Guide (first edition 1998, second edition 2001) and was the lead editor for the third edition of the Wills Eye Manual (2001). He authored the Ophthalmic Drug Guide (first edition 2007, second edition 2010). Dr. Rhee authored and edited Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Ophthalmology: Glaucoma (first edition 2003, second edition 2012, third edition 2017). His has served as a co-editor of the Shields’ Textbook of Glaucoma (6th ed, 2011). Additionally, he contributed over 30 chapters to other textbooks whose target audience ranged from the general public, general medicine, comprehensive ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists. Dr. Rhee began as a consultant for the Physician’s Desk Reference for Ophthalmology in 1997 and had been the lead medical editor for that publication from 2002 - 2012. He reviews for several ophthalmologic journals, and in 2006, Dr. Rhee began serving as a contributing editor for the trade publication Ocular Surgery News, served as an editor for the journal Lasers in Medicine from 2009-2015, and International Glaucoma Review from 2011-2014.

Dr. Rhee has participated in the training of over 150 residents, 40 clinical fellows, as well as mentored 4 post-doctoral research fellows, 15 medical and 9 undergraduate students in the lab. His fellowship trainees have gone onto leadership positions to include a department chair and residency program directors. Approximately half of his clinical fellowship and laboratory trainees are faculty in numerous ophthalmology departments nationally and internationally. Dr. Rhee inaugurated the first glaucoma fellowship at University Hospitals in 2016.

Patient Advocacy and Education

Dr. Rhee has served to advocate for patient safety issues at the legislative level. Dr. Rhee served as vice president of the Massachusetts Society of Eye Physicians and Surgeons from 2009-2013 having testified before the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Aside from numerous citations in ophthalmology trade journals, Dr. Rhee has been interviewed for local newspapers, radio programs and the Wall Street Journal.

Expertise

  • Glaucoma

Videos

Languages Spoken

English

Office Locations

CMC Bolwell Ste 3200

11100 Euclid Ave
Cleveland OH, 44106
216-844-3601

UH Suburban Health Center

1611 S Green Rd
South Euclid OH, 44121
216-844-3601

UH Landerbrook Health Center

5850 Landerbrook Dr
Mayfield Heights OH, 44124
440-449-9991

UH Westlake Health Center

950 Clague Rd
Westlake OH, 44145
440-250-2020

Patient Experience Reviews

4.9 out of 5

256 Ratings

Patient Comments (80)

Reviewed On 9/1/2021
Dr Rhee is an excellent clinician and very caring. I have provided feedback about Dr Rhee numerous times. Please do not ask me again about him. My opinion is not likely to change

Reviewed On 9/1/2021
A very good experience!

Reviewed On 9/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is always professional and pleasant. I am always impressed with how he treats each patient with great kindness and respect.

Reviewed On 9/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is the best !

Reviewed On 9/1/2021
Love Dr.Rhee. He's professional, competent, nice and Finns! Puts me at ease when nervous

Reviewed On 9/1/2021
Always in a hurry- feel rushed

Reviewed On 9/1/2021
Dr Rhee is awesome! Thorough, thoughtful, encouraging and very kind. Always greets you with a smile. Thank you Dr Rhee!

Reviewed On 9/1/2021
I always feel well served by this practice and would recommend it to anyone needing eye care.

Reviewed On 8/1/2021
dr Rhee is amazing. ***

Reviewed On 8/1/2021
Dr. Rhee provides expertise and compassion with outmost care to me as a patient.

Reviewed On 8/1/2021
He was very friendly and talked to me in words I could understand

Reviewed On 8/1/2021
Dr. Rhee and his staff was efficient & professional. Dr. Rhee cares about the individual patient.

Reviewed On 8/1/2021
he and his staff are saving my sight.....you are lucky to have some one of his ability on you payroll

Reviewed On 8/1/2021
Good visit

Reviewed On 8/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is very good doctor, professional, patient, knowledgeable and nice. He always listen with respect and explain very clear, never harry, amazing Doctor. University Hospital are lucky to have him. I wish all doctors will represent the same level.

Reviewed On 8/1/2021
Dr. Rhee treats you with greatest respect and is a genuinely nice person.

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
This doctor is always very thorough and looking ahead with routine care.

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is always a pleasure to see. He is very caring and compassionate to his patients. He is an excellent glaucoma specialist and I am very glad to have him as my doctor.

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is an excellent provider. ***

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is thorough when it comes to eye exams. He's very professional and very approachable with any questions I have. I've never had a bad experience with anyone in his office. Staff is very friendly. Everyone, including Dr. Rhee, is doing a wonderful job!

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
Always excellent care

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is excellent. My exam was thorough and the findings were explained to me in detail. Dr. Rhee is kind, personable and interested in my health.

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
I always received excellent care from Dr Rhee and his team at the Eye Institute.

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
I feel that he provides high quality care and knows well my past history and I am very confident in his assessment of the best course of action to deal with any eye problems that develop.

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
My visit was very thorough and professional.Dr. Rhee took time to answer my questions.

Reviewed On 7/1/2021
dr is excellent and so is his staff

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
*** He is an excellent physician!

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
Dr Rhee always makes time to answer my questions without any rush! I like him personally.

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
dr rhee always takes the time to explain everything. he's a very kind man that listens to his patients.

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
Dr Rhee is an excellent clinician and a very caring and compassionate man

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is great. The best. ***

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
I was very pleased with my experience with Dr. Rhee and his office. It was respectful and thorough!

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is excellent; but he is very busy.

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
I was impressed with Dr. Rhee and his staff; this was my first visit and I didn't know what to expect. Since this is regarding my eyesight ~ of course, it's a sensitive issue to feel secure with the doctor! I have been scheduled for Lazer *** and I am most hopeful for successful results.

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
Always GREAT experience with Dr. Rhee.

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
Dr. Rhee and his team are great.

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is a glaucoma specialist and he treats me for that condition. He is one of the best and most competent doctors that I see. He is always kind and explains things to me on my level. University Hospital is very lucky to have him on their staff.

Reviewed On 6/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is very courteous and knowledgeable.

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
dr Rhee is a wonderful man.

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
Dr Rhee is very good, nice, caring, patient, all what you expect from Doctor. ***

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is pleasant and professional. Even though I know he is very busy I always feel like he spends as much time as needed. ***

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
I am very pleased with the care Dr. Rhee is giving me.

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
I had a wonderful experience with Dr Rhee and his staff. They were very courteous, respectful and knowledgeable.

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
Dr. Rhee excellent care , office was just under staffed the day I was there

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
Dr.Rhee is exceptional when it comes to caring about his patients. He explains everything in terms I can understand *** He is fantastic!

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
excellent care

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
Good

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
what a GREAT doctor! so glad to have found him!

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is a great Doctor with a very good bed side manner.

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is the best! He has taken excellent care of my eyes.

Reviewed On 5/1/2021
excellent care..good at explaining my condition in simple terms for me, very knowledgeable. made me feel comfortable, and put me at ease.

Reviewed On 4/1/2021
Experience was very pleasant

Reviewed On 4/1/2021
I had a good experience with the provider.

Reviewed On 4/1/2021
very attentive and patient with explanationof possible surgery.

Reviewed On 3/1/2021
He's always cheerful

Reviewed On 3/1/2021
excellent experiencevery comfortable with Dr Rhee knowledge and expertise. no complaints at all

Reviewed On 3/1/2021
Dr Rhee was very pleasant and provided me with detailed information about my condition. All of the staff at the Eye Clinic are professional and helpful. I feel comfortable being in their care.

Reviewed On 3/1/2021
Dr. Rhee and his staff are amazing. more than competent, as well as warm and kind. I wish everyone was like that

Reviewed On 2/1/2021
DR Rhee is not only an excellent physician, he is also very caring

Reviewed On 2/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is a listener!!!!!!!

Reviewed On 2/1/2021
Even in the time of Covid the office staff were courteous and took time for me and Dr. Rhee was very helpful. It is due to his efforts that I still have eyesight.

Reviewed On 2/1/2021
This office and provider are always extremely professional and capable. I was very satisfied with my care and the time the tech and doctor took.

Reviewed On 2/1/2021
thisd is the best eye doctor and the best staff.....you are lucky to have them represent U H

Reviewed On 1/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is not only a very good doctor, he is compassionate and caring and treats his patients very well. University Hospital is very lucky to have him.

Reviewed On 1/1/2021
Dr. Rhee has excellent communication skills. He is a good listener, let's you express yourself and answers all your questions. I would recommend him to any friend or family member. He was a pleasure to deal with.

Reviewed On 1/1/2021
Good

Reviewed On 1/1/2021
competent & thorough exam always

Reviewed On 1/1/2021
Dr. Rhee is always helpful when it comes to my questions about glaucoma. He's very professional and approachable.

Reviewed On 1/1/2021
excellent

Reviewed On 1/1/2021
good experience

Reviewed On 12/1/2020
Dr. Rhee is great, he cares about all his patients.

Reviewed On 12/1/2020
Excellent care!

Reviewed On 12/1/2020
As has been the case at all previous visits, exceptional care and attention was given to my situation.

Reviewed On 12/1/2020
Dr Rhee is awesome, I've never had a bad, or even mediocre experience.

Reviewed On 12/1/2020
It was a good experience.

Reviewed On 12/1/2020
this is a top-notch operation

Reviewed On 12/1/2020
Dr. Rhee is an excellent doctor, addressing all my issues and insuring the on-going well-being of my eyesight. I really appreciate his in-depth care for my vision.

Reviewed On 11/1/2020
Dr Rhee is beyond phenominal. Cleveland is fortunate to have him and I have already recommended him to many. Best of the best!

Reviewed On 11/1/2020
Dr. Rhee is an amazing physician. Even though I moved out of the state of Ohio, I still retain Dr. Rhee as my ophthalmologist because he's the best and level of care and professionalism is unparalleled.

Reviewed On 11/1/2020
Dr. Rhee is compassionate and takes time to explain the course of treatment.

Board Certifications

  • Ophthalmology - American Board of Ophthalmology

Education

Post Doctorate Training | Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology - National Eye Institute (2000 - 2001)

Fellowship | Glaucoma
Glaucoma - Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (1999 - 2000)

Residency | Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology - Wills Eye Hospital (1996 - 1999)

Internship | Transitional Year
Transitional Year - Oakwood Hospital (1995 - 1996)

Medical Education
University Of Michigan Medical School (1991 - 1995)

Undergraduate
University Of Michigan (1991)

Industry Relationships

University Hospitals is committed to transparency in our interactions with industry partners, such as pharmaceutical, biotech, or medical device companies. At UH, we disclose practitioner and their family members’ ownership and intellectual property rights that are or in the process of being commercialized. In addition, we disclose payments to employed practitioners of $5,000 or more from companies with which the practitioners interact as part of their professional activities. These practitioner-industry relationships assist in developing new drugs, devices and therapies and in providing medical education aimed at improving quality of care and enhancing clinical outcomes. At the same time, UH understands that these relationships may create a conflict of interest. In providing this information, UH desires to assist patients in talking with their practitioners about industry relationships and how those relationships may impact their medical care.

UH practitioners seek advance approval for certain new industry relationships. In addition, practitioners report their industry relationships and activities, as well as those of their immediate family members, to the UH Office of Outside Interests annually. We review these reports and implement management plans, as appropriate, to address conflicts of interest that may arise in connection with medical research, clinical care and purchasing decisions.

View UH’s policy (PDF) on practitioner-industry relationships.

As of December 31, 2016, Douglas Rhee disclosed the following Outside Relationships with Industry:

  • - Sanofi-Aventis - Consulting payments