Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

Kidney disorders can show up on fetal ultrasound before birth. Or a healthcare provider may diagnose them after a urinary tract infection.

When a child's gender is in question at birth, the child has atypical genitalia (ambiguous genitalia). This means that the genitals don't seem to be clearly male or female.

Circumcision is a surgery to remove the skin covering the end of the penis. This is called the foreskin. This surgery is most often done 1 or 2 days after a baby boy's birth.

Undescended testes is when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. This is a condition seen in some newborn baby boys.

Detailed information on dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis. Here's what you need to know.

Exstrophy of the bladder is when a baby's bladder has grown inside out and is sticking through the belly wall. It often occurs together with epispadias. This is when the opening of the tube that carries urine out of the body (the urethra) is in the wrong place.

Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that makes it hard for the kidneys to filter blood from urine.

Horseshoe kidney is when the 2 kidneys join (fuse) together at the bottom. They form a U shape like a horseshoe.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that can lead to kidney failure. The syndrome harms the small structures and vessels inside the kidneys. HUS causes red blood cells to clog the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It may cause damage to the kidney tissues.

A hydrocele is fluid buildup in the thin pouch that holds the testes in the scrotum. Up to 1 in 10 baby boys have a hydrocele at birth. In most cases, it goes away without treatment in the first year.

Detailed information on genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

A hernia occurs when a part of the intestine pushes through a weakness in the belly (abdominal) muscles. A hernia in the groin area is called an inguinal hernia.

Detailed information on the most common male genitourinary conditions

A micropenis is a penis that is smaller than normal. A penis length of less than 0.75 inches is considered micropenis.

Megaureter is a ureter that is much wider than normal. A megaureter may not drain urine normally. This can lead to infections and kidney damage.

Nephrotic syndrome is a problem where too much protein called albumin is released from the body into the urine. It means that one or both kidneys are damaged.

Detailed information on nutrition and diet for children with nephrotic syndrome.

Neurogenic bladder means the bladder doesn't work normally because of nerve damage. It causes a child to have problems with holding or releasing urine.

Detailed information on nutrition and renal failure in children

Phimosis and paraphimosis are problems with the foreskin of the penis. Phimosis is when a foreskin can’t be pulled down (retracted) from the tip of the penis. Paraphimosis is when the foreskin is retracted but can’t move back up.

A child with prune belly syndrome often can't fully empty his or her bladder. This can cause serious bladder, ureter, and kidney problems.

Detailed information on controlling phosphorus in your child's diet.

Detailed information on the different types of polycystic kidney disease

Read on for detailed information to help your child limit or avoid high-potassium foods.

Detailed information on limiting protein in your child's diet, when your child has kidney failure.

Posterior urethral valves are a problem with the urethra in a boy. The valves partly block urine flow because not enough urine can get through them to leave the body. This can harm the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys.

Kidney disease (renal failure) is short-term or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function.

Detailed information on renal failure, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and diet

Detailed information on genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

Detailed information on controlling sodium in your child's diet.

Testicular torsion is a painful twisting of a boy’s testicles and spermatic cord. Torsion causes blood to not flow to the testicles. This can damage them. Treatment needs to be done right away to prevent long-lasting (permanent) injury to the testicles.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is inflammation of part of the system that takes urine out of the body. It's caused by bacteria.

A ureterocele is when part of a ureter right near the bladder becomes larger and bulges. This happens because the ureter's opening into the bladder is too small and blocks urine flow.

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a condition where urine in the bladder flows in the wrong direction. It goes up into the tubes (ureters) that lead to the kidneys.

Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations.

Hypospadias is a problem where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis. With hypospadias, the end of the tube is lower down on the underside of the penis. Or it may be in the scrotum.

Detailed information on kidney transplants, including why a kidney transplant is recommended, what is involved in kidney transplant surgery, and the long-term outlook for a child after a kidney transplant.

The male reproductive anatomy includes the bladder, epididymis, penis, scrotum, and prostate gland.

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